Exploring the Potential of EHMIs as Traffic Light Alternatives


The development of automated vehicles (AVs) brings new challenges to human-vehicle communication, primarily in urban environments. One way to facilitate communication is seen in the use of external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs). These indicate the current status as well as the intentions of AVs to other road users. This paper focuses on designing and evaluating eHMIs for communication between multiple AVs and pedestrians at multi-lane intersections. For this purpose, we analyzed the current situation with traffic signals and future scenarios with eHMIs. We designed an eHMI concept suitable for scenarios with many vehicles and different intersection situations. In an online survey (N=104), we used videos from four test scenarios for a comparative evaluation (baseline: traffic signals). The results show that the eHMI concept received higher ratings for user experience and emotional state in some cases, but also highlight the need for consistent behavior across different vehicles, which would be the default with traffic lights.

Adjunct Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications